Indira Rakhimova


Many studies of second language acquisition look at how the first language influences the production of the second, but studies that look at how the acquisition of a second language affects the first are rare. Some scholars argue that the second language cannot be acquired after puberty, while others argue that age isn’t a factor being an obstacle to learn a new language and they assume that people in older ages may be successful as the ones whose minds are fresh (adults). The current paper aims at discovering the age and gender influence of second language acquisitions.




1. Baker, W., Trofimovich, P., Flege, J. E., Mack, M., & Halter, R. (2008). Child—Adult Differences in Second-Language Phonological Learning: The Role of Cross-Language Similarity. Language and Speech, 51(4).
2. Bialystok, E. (1997). The structure of age: in search of barriers to second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 13.
3. Bialystok, E. and Hakuta, K. (1999). Confounded age: linguistic and cognitive factors in age differences for second language acquisition. In D. Birdsong (ed.), Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
4. DeKeyser, R. M. (2000). The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in second language acquisition, 22(04).
5. DeKeyser, R. M. (2013). Age Effects in Second Language Learning: Stepping Stones Toward Better Understanding. Language Learning, 63(01).
6. Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2).
7. Flege, J. E. (1992b). Speech learning in a second language. In C. Ferguson, L. Menn, & C. StoelGammon (Eds.), Phonological development: Models, research, implications. Timonium, MD: York Press.
8. Hakuta, K., Bialystok, E., & Wiley, E. (2003). Critical evidence: A test of the critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition. Psychological Science.
9. Harley, B., & Wang, W. (1997). The critical period hypothesis: Where are we now? In A.M.B. De Groot and J. F. Kroll (eds), Tutorials in Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
10. Johnson, J. S., & Newport, E. L. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of the maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive psychology, 21(1).
11. Krashen, S. D., Long, M. A., & Scarcella, R. C. (1979). Age, rate, and eventual attainment in second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly.
12. Lenneberg, E.H. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.
13. Long, M. H. (1993). Second language acquisition as a function of age: research findings and methodological issues. In K. Hyltenstam and Å. Viberg (eds), Progression and Regression in Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.